What is Thromboxane?

Thromboxane, a type of eicosanoid produced by platelets, is a signaling molecule derived from fatty acids and is produced primarily by platelets in response to injury. Thromboxanes promote platelet aggregation, vasoconstriction and clot formation, all of which are important factors in the hemostatic process. In addition, they can cause vasoconstriction and bronchoconstriction, and are involved in inflammation and wound healing.

However, excessive thromboxane production can also lead to pathological conditions such as thrombosis, for example, the formation of blood clots in blood vessels and may lead to serious health problems. Examples include heart attacks, strokes, etc.

Schematic representation of the mechanism of action of thromboxane in patients with atherosclerosisSchematic representation of the mechanism of action of thromboxane in patients with atherosclerosis (Szczuko M et al., 2021).

What is Thromboxane A2 and Thromboxane B2?

  • Thromboxane A2 is an eicosanoid (a signaling molecule) that is produced by platelets. Used as a vasoconstrictor to activate platelets and cause them to aggregate, thromboxane A2 plays an important role in blood clotting and is used in medical applications to treat healing tissue damage and inflammation. In some cases, overproduction of TXA2 can adversely affect cardiovascular health, leading to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.
  • TXB2 is a metabolite of TXA2 and is produced by enzymatic action in the liver and kidneys. It can be used as a biomarker of thromboxane production in vivo. Measurement of TXB2 levels in urine or plasma can provide information on the activity of the thromboxane system in vivo and can be used to monitor response to therapy or disease progression.

Thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) are important bioactive compounds produced by platelets, endothelial cells and other cells in the body. They are part of the arachidonic acid cascade of the body's inflammatory response. Understanding the role and effects of thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) is important for the management of various diseases and conditions, such as many diseases including cardiovascular disease.

What is Thromboxane

What is the Function of Thromboxane?

Thromboxanes, a class of arachidonic hormones. It acts as a vasoconstrictor and a powerful hypertensive agent and promotes platelet agglutination and smooth muscle contraction. Thromboxane, first isolated from platelets, causes arterial constriction, induces platelet aggregation, and promotes thrombosis. Thromboxane can be obtained from prostaglandin H2 by the action of thromboxane A synthase in platelets. Changes in thromboxane levels are seen in atherosclerosis, angina pectoris, coronary artery disease, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, etc. Elevated TXA2/PGI2 ratio easily leads to platelet aggregation and thrombus formation, prompting atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease.

What are the Analytical Methods of Thromboxane?

Thromboxane analysis can be used to understand thromboxane levels, which in turn can be used to help analyze platelet function and the effects of potential cardiovascular disease on the organism. Some of the common analytical methods used to measure thromboxane levels in biological samples include.

  • Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). GC/MS has high specificity and accuracy in the analysis of thromboxane. GC/MS can be used to detect and quantify thromboxane levels in blood or urine samples. We use GC/MS for thromboxane analysis by sample preparation including extraction, purification and derivatization techniques and finally by GC/MS for accurate quantitative analysis.
  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This is a commonly used method that measures thromboxane levels using a specific antibody. The method is simple, sensitive, and requires a small amount of sample
  • High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). This analytical technique separates a complex mixture of thromboxane and its metabolites to quantify their levels.
  • Radioimmunoassay (RIA) and radioreceptor assay (RRA). These assays use radioisotopes to label thromboxane in the sample, which is then detected by specific receptors or antibodies.
  • Electrochemical assay. This method is based on measuring the change in current or voltage that occurs when thromboxane interacts with an electrode.


  1. Szczuko M, Kozioł I, et al. "The Role of Thromboxane in the Course and Treatment of Ischemic Stroke: Review." Int J Mol Sci. (2021): 22(21):11644.

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