Lipids are the basic substances that make up biological membranes. Through lipid-lipid interactions and interactions between lipids and other biomolecules, a complex network of lipid metabolism is formed, which is involved in a large number of life activities. By studying lipid extracts, information about the lipidome can be obtained. Lipidomics studies lipids in organisms at a systematic level, revealing their interactions and interactions with other biomolecules.
Many abnormal physiological states are associated with disorders of lipid metabolism. Studying the changes of lipids in different states of the organism at the systemic level can help analyze the mechanisms of lipid metabolic networks. Identification of key lipids and related enzymes can help to identify potential abnormalities in metabolic pathways or pathogenic mechanisms, and eventually develop effective diagnostic and therapeutic tools.
Depending on the focus of the study, lipidomics can be applied to the following pharmaceutical research.
The most fundamental application of lipidomics in pharmaceutical research is the identification of lipid biomarkers that are associated with lesions in organisms or are expressed abnormally in disease states of organisms. By analyzing the changes of lipid biomarkers throughout the disease process and their interactions with other biomolecules, we can grasp the position of lipid metabolism disorders in the development of diseases as a whole and identify the possible pathogenesis.
Lipidomics is used to observe changes in lipids before and after the disease, thereby identifying abnormal lipids. These lipids have the potential to become biomarkers indicating the development of disease. Testing these lipid indicators can help with early disease diagnosis.
Many effective agents currently in use, such as cyclooxygenase inhibitors like rofecoxib and cholesterol-lowering drugs like simvastatin, target lipid metabolizing enzymes and thus regulate lipid metabolic networks. Lipidomics provides a platform for studying lipid-lipid interactions and lipid-protein interactions in disease states. By comparing changes in the lipidome and related enzymes in cells or tissues in disease states and normal states, potential target proteins are identified. Lipid molecules that specifically bind to these target proteins may then become druggable lead compounds. Their structures are then analyzed and optimized to obtain new drug molecules that act on the target proteins.
Lipidomics can elucidate changes in lipids and related enzymes after drug action, revealing drugs' possible mechanism of action.
Reversing lipid metabolism disorders is conducive to the treatment of diseases. Monitoring changes in lipid metabolism in the body after the action of drugs, and timely response to changes in the body's physiological and biochemical state, is helpful to evaluate the efficacy of drugs and determine possible side effects. Therefore, lipidomics can also be used as an auxiliary means to evaluate the efficacy of drugs.